What does it mean to be

Let's find out

My name is Stefani. I’m completing a PhD in philosophy and religion at the University of Oxford in England.

I began having panic attacks about dying and the meaning of life when I was four years old. I’ve been looking for answers ever since. In some cases, I think I’ve found them.

Today, I use my expertise in spiritual health and existential crises to help people heal and find spiritual wholeness.

Stefani Ruper

#56: The Lost Art of Logic with Steve Patterson

Here are the notes for episode #56 of Naked Humanity. This week I have the enormous pleasure to chat with freelance philosopher Steve Patterson, who studied philosophy and became an expert in logic entirely outside of the academy. Steve and I chat about his...

#55x: Living Outside the Philosophical Box

Here are the notes for episode #55x of Naked Humanity. In last week’s question, a listener claimed that we were polar opposites. I think this was on the basis of what he perceived my views to be about some things. I wanted to take this opportunity to talk about...

#55: The State of Philosophy Today with John Perry

Here are the notes for episode #55 of Naked Humanity. Today I chat with one of the pioneers of philosophy podcasting, John Perry. But Professor Perry is such a pro that he’s not actually a podcaster: he hosted the philosophy radio show Philosophy Talk for decades. We...

No Easy Answers

Once, long ago, humans lived in small tribes where everybody believed in the same spiritual story. This became more complicated over time, but until a few hundred years ago pretty much everybody met their spiritual needs in the same way.

Come the 1500s, however, Christianity began splintering.  And Europeans cast their gazes across the seas. They realised: no one anywhere in the world has the same beliefs.

Today, we live in a world in which there are no longer any easy spiritual answers. This world is also rife with anger, anxiety, and despair. This is no coincidence.

Easy spirituality is a thing of the past. Our longing for it might be killing us. How did we end up like this, and is there anything that can be done?


The book is currently being written alongside several articles, podcast episodes, and the final chapters of a dissertation. It will likely be published in 2022. Many excerpts and related philosophical ramblings will be published on this website as they are completed. You can find those under the tag “No Easy Answers.”


Have you ever wondered why people today are always so angry, so afraid, so anxious?  While there are various answers to these questions—and many of them very important—in this book I argue that a key component to these problems is the amount of what I call existential ambiguity we are forced to live with every day. Modern humans in the West have to live with the greatest amount of uncertainty—and specifically uncertainty about life’s biggest, most pressing questions, such as what is a good life? How do we be moral? Is there a soul? Does God exist? What happens when we die?—that has ever existed in the history of the human species. This has enormous consequences for the ways in which we feel, live, and relate to one another. We can collapse into fear and nihilism, or we can use this as an opportunity to create new and beautiful things. 

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Why Certain Truth Needs to Die

Last week I was tagged several times in the comment section of a Facebook post I didn’t remember liking. Puzzled, I scrolled through the comments and realized that people were repeatedly tagging me in order to demand justification for why I had liked the post. A woman...

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The Destructive Side of Science

Just before his death in 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus argued that the Earth revolves around the Sun in a book called On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. This moment is often heralded as the birth of modern science. Now, theories and experiments that we would...

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What does it mean to be human?

How do people around the world cope with life’s ineluctable tragedies?

What do we need to save us from ourselves?